The rotator cuff is made up of the muscles surrounding the shoulder joint, its function is to move the upper arm and stabilize the joint.
Injury to these muscles can be caused by a sudden, poorly executed and coordinated movement, or by external force, a fall or even a jerk of the arm.
Overuse of the shoulder, overhead exercises, or using too heavy weights can also cause chronic rotator cuff damage and pain. Rotator cuff injuries are particularly common in throwing athletes, but often occur in the gym as a result of inadequate control or heavy weight exercises.
Rotator cuff injuries can be complete or partial.
A complete tear is a tear that runs through the full thickness of the muscle.
A partial tear can be divided into stage one, stage two or stage three, depending on the thickness of the affected area. The first stage is up to 3 mm, the second stage is up to 6 mm, and the third stage is greater than 6 mm.
In the case of a partial tear, rotator cuff injuries do not require surgery or surgical intervention and can be treated with regenerative medicine: rest, physiotherapy, kineziotape, collagen injection or prp. Thus, TENS and magnetic and therapeutic ultrasound are the first steps of therapy, followed by local injections.
Complete tears and high-grade partial tears are typically considered in stage 3. In some cases, where the damage does not heal for 6-12 months with conservative treatment, surgical repair may be necessary for degenerative and partial tears.